- 1 Motivation and feasibility
- 2 Cold sources advantages
- 3 Cold Source from volcanoes
- 4 Heat exchanger for biological environment
- 5 Strategy and industrialisation
- 6 High density heat exchangers
- 7 Cold Source experiment
- 8 What happens in Ni and Li based reactors?
- 9 Other elements for CMNS heat sources
- 10 Notes and references
Motivation and feasibility[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
Conventional production of electricity from heat by the Carnot Cycle loses 2 times more heat than it uses. Causing the warming of rivers and disrupts the environment and the species that live there.
New sources of energy, called from Cold fusion, by transmutation of nickel and hydrogen or others, environmental and economic, will encourage humans to produce large amounts of electricity. The waste heat will be added to the greenhouse effect and exacerbate its effects.
To reduce the heating of the environment, we should have an economic and environmental cold source. The biological transmutation from sodium to potassium which limits the temperature of the human body to 39 °C can help, giving us the first step in these researches.
Cold sources based on the surrounding air exchangers lead to large energy converters, whereas cold fusion would allow a much greater energy density.
But these technics will require extensive research that we must begin at the earliest, and tax incentives, and legal constraints to promote the use of electric generators from hot and cold sources with a very reduced thermal impact.
Two ways seems possible, high density heat exchangers and special biological heat exchangers.
Cold sources advantages[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
By combining a heat source and a cold source from cold fusion :
- We could use a Carnot cycle internal to the energy converter, and without exchange with the environment, balancing the powers of internal sources, hot and cold.
- We could dispose of very compact and light electric power sources.
- We could reduce heat dispersion instead of conventional heat sources, and avoid to disturb and pollute the environment by heating the air or water.
- This would reduce the size and cost of power converters with internal density fluids under hight pressure or even solid engineering.
- We could transport energy for heating by electric cables even at close range.
- We could provide energy generators in any environment, air, gases, liquids, solids and even spacial vacuum.
- Exceptionaly, We could willingly affect the temperature of the environment by differently isolating hot and cold parts of the generator, we can heat or cool the outside of the generator. Coordinating this mechanism in large generators, or in a large number of small generators. In large cities this could reduce the risk of weather disturbances and tornadoes, or even divert them.
Cold Source from volcanoes[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
Micro-organisms are not all fragile. Bacteria living on land or underwater volcanoes:
- Can withstand temperatures 45 to 122 °C, see Thermophile organism.
- Can withstand rapid temperature transitions in vortex mixing hot and cold water,
- Are under high pressure in the deep ocean (between 100 and 500 bar), which prevents boiling,
- Could use other transmutations than Na + O → K,
- Are good candidates to start the researches.
Heat exchanger for biological environment[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
The main limitation of conventional exchangers for micro-organisms is the temperature which varies along whole fluid circuits.
But we can conceive a heat exchanger with one of the circuits at constant temperature suitable for micro-organisms.
- The heat exchanger comprises three stages:
- The stage 1 with the hot circuit at a decreasing temperature.
- The stage 3 is the cold circuit, at constant temperature endothermic biological.
- The stage stage 2 consists of several intermediate pipe loops that work in parallel.
- In each pipe loop, the water flows at a different rate.
- The pipe loop 1 has a flow rate of 16 L / S where the water is at 200 ° C hot side and cold side 40 ° C.
- The pipe loop 2 has a flow rate of 15 L / S where the water is at 190 ° C hot side and cold side 40 ° C.
- And so on ...
- The last pipe loop has a flow rate of 1 L / S where the water is at 50 ° C hot side and cold side 40 ° C.
We must eliminate potassium and nourish this environment. To achieve to multiply the reaction rate of Na + O → K we must also adjust nutrient intakes and long-term evolution of microorganisms. That is cultivate several parallel lines under different conditions to obtain different genetic changes. And expertly combine them to gradually improve microbial viability and energy efficiency.
Strategy and industrialisation[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
It is unlikely that a biological medium allows a sufficient energy density for most applications. But in cases where this constraint is not important, this pathway could be the fastest way to get to industrialization. And would be interesting for schools and students in the field of cold fusion including biological.
Starting research in this way, we would restore the biological transmutations in its letters patent of nobility and then encourage researchers to develop their studies in the medical, agricultural and environmental fields.
High density heat exchangers[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
To provide a sufficient energy density, we will probably search to achieve the transmutation Na + O → K by one of LENR technologies.
But if the transmutation Na + O → K is carried out in non-organic environment, will it still be endothermic?
One could also search for other endothermic fusions or fission of stable elements, such as in extremophiles bacteria terrestrial or underwater volcanoes.
Cold Source experiment[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
- The human body transmutes Na in K to limit its temp to 39°C.
- We can try to implement a cooling device to reduce thermal losses that pollutes the nature.
- We can try to build energy sources without thermal lost, or more exactly to equilibrate their heat and cold lost and become externally neutral.
- Many parts of the human body could be used to start.
- Probably also body of many other species which regulate their temperature.
- We can select and keep cells varieties which limit their temperature.
- We can try by experiment to adapt the transmutation to higher or lower temperatures.
- We can try to extend the ability of cells to live in a wider range of temperatures, (extremophiles can live until 120 °C), then extend the long term viability of cells.
- Living cells make cold when necessary, but always maintains the needed proteins.
- Needed proteins are probably keep when drying the cells.
- We perhaps could use any dried cells, then try many possibilities.
Probability of efficiency:
- In living bodies, the reaction happens probably in mitochondria which manage many aspects of energy exchanges.
- At which density the cooling biological process is it efficient for implied cells and proteins ?
- We must evaluate these densities in a body, and the power generated by the biological fever process.
- Nuclear reactions are very energetic 10^6 to 10^7 times chemical reactions, and have a big energy density.
- We can heat cells along thermal cycles around the critical temperature.
- We can start from a drop of blood, or perhaps from a piece of meat unused in the kitchen.
- Put cells in conditions where they adapt themselves to the heat.
- Select and preserve varieties of cells which limit their temperature.
- Select and preserve varieties of cells which better resist to more various temperatures, to extend their long term viability.
- homogeneize temperature, nutriments and cells density.
- mesure the water temperature and the input power of the heater and their variations to detect limitations of temperature.
- A cheap cooling device based on this process could reduce the thermic loss of any other hot process.
- We could implement this device in a cooling layer of material, then replace and recycle when it becomes inefficient.
- We could use a cooling device around any other hot process. This reduces the lost of heat and increases the efficiency.
- A cooling device increases the efficiency of a thermic to electric energy converter.
- A cooling layer increases the efficiency and simplify conception of other process, like motors in cars.
- We can try to implement cooling devices to reduce the thermal loss that polute the nature.
What happens in Ni and Li based reactors?[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
What happens with Ni and Li? An understand way:
- In 2014, we mix 2 powders of Ni and of Li[AlH4], and the transmutation is mainly on Li.
- The reaction happens where the 2 powders are in contact, and Ni powder is mainly a catalyser.
- Perhaps we could increase the reaction rate thanks more contact surface, with Li around Ni or reverse.
- Perhaps the reaction rate increases when one of two powder melts a bit and increases the contact surface.
- The melting point is different and lower in an alliage of two or more elements.
Mature the mix of powders:
- Each time we heat the mix of powders, we increase a bit the contact surfaces between Ni and Li.
- What are their separe melting points? What are the melting points of their possibles "alliages"?
- We could prepare the mix, improve its efficiency, mature the mix, by thermal cycles around these temperatures.
- And later only, use this matured mix.
- We could try to "paint" Ni powder particules with a single molecule layer of Li, but how?
- Perhaps we could make an "alliage" fo Ni and Li "molecules".
- Perhaps we could make a multilayer material with alternate layers of Li and Ni "molecules".
Other elements for CMNS heat sources[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
In may 2015, reactions of nickel Ni and lithium Li need a temperature of 1200 C. The reactions happen where the 2 powders are in contact, the transmutation is mainly on Li, while Ni powder is mainly a catalyser.
Could biological transmutations help us to use better elements and reactions ?
L.C. Kervran talks several times about Li, but I do not found its report in any proved experiment.
In 2014, Ni and Li, transmutations need a temperature upper 1000 C. While biological transmutations happen at ambiant temperature:
- L.C. Kervran talks several times about Li, but I do not found it in any proved experiment.
- We could try already known biological transmutations, in not biological conditions. See a list there:
- The list of proved experiments is, in direct or reverse reactions: Mg + O → Ca, 2 N → C + O, Na + O → K, Ca → K + H
- These elements could replace Li in the Andrea Rossi and replications experiments.
- We could replace the biological protein catalysis by a heater and a metalic surface (Ni or other) help to guide electrons.